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Autismo e toque (não TOC!)

Autism may stem—in part—from a disordered sense of touch

A disrupted sense of touch causes autismlike behaviors in mice.

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Autism may stem—in part—from a disordered sense of touch

Sociability may be skin deep. The social impairments and high anxiety seen in people with autism or related disorders may be partly due to a disruption in the nerves of the skin that sense touch, a new study in mice suggests.

Autism spectrum disorders are primarily thought of as disorders of the brain, generally characterized by repetitive behaviors and deficits in communication skills and social interaction. But a majority of people with autism spectrum disorders also have an altered tactile sense; they are often hypersensitive to light touch and can be overwhelmed by certain textures. “They tend to be very wary of social touch [like a hug or handshake], or if they go outside and feel a gust of wind, it can be very unnerving,” says neuroscientist Lauren Orefice from Harvard Medical School in Boston.

An appreciation for this sensory aspect of autism has grown in recent years. The newest version of psychiatry’s bible, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, includes the sensory abnormalities of autism as core features of the disease. “That was a big nod and a recognition that this is a really important aspect of autism,” says Kevin Pelphrey, a cognitive neuroscientist at The George Washington University in Washington, D.C., who was not involved in the work.
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Sobre a seleção sexual em favor dos machos beta (e gama?)

 

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Mais uma teoria de barzinho que poderia ser verdadeira:

A pergunta é: se os machos alfa são favorecidos pela evolução, porque não somos todos machos alfa (na verdade eles são uma minoria da população masculina).

Tenho duas hipóteses complementares sobre isso, todas baseadas no poder de escolha das mulheres.

Primeiro, parece ser muito mais provável que um macho alfa seja violento com sua mulher (porque eles são mais violentos em geral). Assim, mesmo que as mulheres possam sentir desejo por um macho alfa, se forem um pouco mais racionais irão preferir um macho beta (ou gama) que cuide bem delas e dos  filhotes, seja gentil, etc (hoje é o “Dia da Gentileza”, 13/novembro).

Segundo, isso tem a ver com o processo de neotenia que as mulheres impuseram aos homens (neotenia é o que aconteceu durante a domesticação do cão a partir do lobo – favorecimento de caracteres infantis).

Ou seja, se a mulher escolher um macho mais infantil (que não é macho alfa, claro!) , ela terá mais domínio sobre ele, ao fazer o papel de mãe dele e não apenas de parceira sexual. Mulheres maternais são atraentes para os homens (eles gostam de carinho e serem cuidados, comidinha na boca etc) e essa é a mesma raiz do Complexo de Édipo. Na verdade é uma simbiose mutualística, a mulher domina o esposo=filho e o macho é melhor tratado pela esposa=mãe. Essa teoria explica porque os homens (em geral) são bem menos maduros que as mulheres (especialmente na adolescência) e os marmanjos parecem apenas mudar de brinquedos quando crescem:  carrinho vira carrão, jogo de bola vira futebol, brincadeiras de luta e guerra vira filmes de ação e Star Wars.

É claro que, como toda hipótese de psicologia evolucionária, esta sempre tem suas exceções.

Vale notar que o machismo e o patriarcalismo visam primeiramente retirar esse poder de seleção sexual das mulheres (via casamentos arranjados) , a fim de favorecer os machos alfa. Com o fim do patriarcalismo me parece que os machos beta e gama serão cada vez mais favorecidos (embora algumas mulheres reclamem que já não se fazem homens como antigamente, tipo Aragorn e Legolas da Sociedade do Anel). Mas vale lembrar que eles tiveram poucos filhos em comparação com os machos gama Hobbits.

 

 

Folha de S.Paulo – Ciência – Estudo genético liga inteligência a risco de ter autismo

sexta-feira, 27 de março de 2015

As mesmas alterações de DNA que tornam uma pessoa propensa a desenvolver autismo –transtorno mental que afeta a sociabilidade e comunicabilidade–
Continua: http://www1.folha.uol.com.br/ciencia/2015/03/1608776-estudo-genetico-liga-inteligencia-a-risco-de-contrair-autismo.shtml

Endocanabionóides e autismo

Em 2010, neste blog, eu conjecturei que talvez um defeito no sistema endocanabinoide poderia estar relacionado ao autismo (minha evidencia era apenas o fato de que a cannabis produz efeitos antagonicos ao autismo, como maior sociabilidade, maior deriva no foco de atenção, redução de ansiedade e comportamento obsessivo (se a teoria de Crick-Mitchison sobre sono REM estiver certa)  etc.

Inclusive neste post eu anunciava que essa ideia poderia gerar um novo tratamento para o autismo.  Desde então, parece que pesquisas confirmaram tais hipóteses. É pena que eu não tinha condições (colaboradores em  neurobiologia do autismo) para pesquisar tal assunto, muito menos publicar. Leia a seguir sobre essas novas pesquisas. Read more [+]

Mais uma evidência conectando inteligencia e autismo

Socioeconomic gradients in autism cases may not be self-selected

JULY 13, 2010
by EcoPhysioMichelle

Throughout my life, I’ve often been told (usually by way of consolation) that autistic children are born to intelligent families. One of my two younger brothers has severe autism. I was very young when he was diagnosed, and for a while he was treated as though he had a speech and language disorder. If I had to guess, I would say that he was diagnosed around the age of 5-6. The earliest warning sign was that he didn’t start talking at the stage in development where that usually happens. While my brother is still fond of social interaction, his main symptom to this day (he’s now 23) remains an inability to carry a conversation. He uses language in a very crude manner, only stringing together 2-3 words at a time. “Go potty.” “All done.” “Hungry.” I have lots offeelings on this subject (believe me), but that’s not the point of this post.

ResearchBlogging.org

The dogma that autism is a disease of high(er) intelligence and socioeconomic status has been around since the first diagnoses for autism came out when my grandparents were kids. This is in opposition to the norm, where the prevalence of developmental disabilities is most often inversely related to socioeconomic status because parents in poor communities have fewer resources for parenting education and health services. In recent years, the argument that the higher prevalence of autism cases in families of higher socioeconomic status is self-selected; that is, parents with more access to resources and information about autism are more likely to seek out proper diagnosis and treatment for their child(ren).

In Socioeconomic Inequality in the Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evidence from a U.S. Cross-Sectional Study, Durken and colleagues studied datasets for several states from the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network to see if there was a change in the prevalence of autism rates due to socioeconomic gradient between cases where the child had a prior diagnosis for an autism spectrum disorder and cases where there was no prior diagnosis.

We designed the present study to examine—among a large, diverse, population-based sample of 8-year-old children in the United States in which ASD case status was determined regardless of whether a child had a pre-existing ASD diagnosis—whether the prevalence of ASD is associated with SES and, if so, whether the association is consistent across subgroups defined by race/ethnicity, gender, phenotypic characteristics, diagnosis, and data sources.

The authors found strong evidence of a positively-correlated socioeconomic gradient in children with autism spectrum disorders. This gradient was weaker but remained a positive relationship in children without a prior diagnosis. This means that even in cases where the parents did not seek diagnosis for their child, there was still an increase in autism cases with increasing socioeconomic status, albeit a weaker one. This is evidence that, while the magnitude of the gradient may be self-selected, there is very likely still a positive relationship between socioeconomic status and prevalence of autism. The causes for this relationship remain to be explored, but one possibility could be the average reproductive age of highly educated females vs. less educated females and other hidden factors.


Durkin, M., Maenner, M., Meaney, F., Levy, S., DiGuiseppi, C., Nicholas, J., Kirby, R., Pinto-Martin, J., & Schieve, L. (2010). Socioeconomic Inequality in the Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evidence from a U.S. Cross-Sectional Study PLoS ONE, 5 (7) DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0011551